Sanilhac a l’urbanisme vert!

En mars 2017, Guy Crespy, maire de ce petit village entre Nîmes et Uzès a décidé de donner la priorité au durable et à l’écologique en actant dans son plan local d’urbanisme (PLU) la construction d’un écoquartier exemplaire sur environ 2 hectares de garrigue. Il a accordé, sur cet espace, qu’un groupe d’habitat participatif réalise son rêve de « vivre autrement ». Rencontre avec Mariano Dellantonio, l’un des membres du collectif HAPACH.

C’est il y a plus de 3 ans, que 8 personnes se rassemblent pour créer HAPACH, acronyme de Habitat Participatif de la Croix Haute à Saint Hippolyte du Fort. Pour plusieurs raisons, le projet n’a pas abouti sur ce lieu mais il a été adopté avec plaisir par Mr Crespy. Il cédera entre 2000 et 3000m2 de terrain au collectif, laissant de quoi imaginer un espace digne d’un Miyasaki*. Car Mariano espère bien s’inspirer de l’architecture japonaise, avec un partage des espaces intérieurs/extérieurs ou l’utilisation de l’eau des sous-sols qui ruissellera devant toutes les maisons. Il m’enchante quand il me livre qu’il a bon espoir d’avoir un arbre tout entier dans sa partie individuelle… Du coté des matériaux, le groupe tend vers la maison passive et l’autonomie énergétique. Ossature bois, isolation en paille ou en chanvre, enduits en terre, certains murs en pierres de Vers… Tout sera pensé pour que cet habitat soit le plus neutre possible. Une bonne conception à la base, avec une surface de vitrage optimisée au sud, une enveloppe super isolée et de l’inertie, devraient permettre de se passer de chauffage, sauf dans les salles de bain où des sèche-serviettes seront installés.

Mieux vivre… ensemble

Chacun aurait un espace privatif réduit au minimum en plus des espaces partagés. Car le but est bien de vivre autrement, de réduire l’impact négatif de l’habitat sur la nature en partageant ce qui peut l’être : cuisine, ateliers divers, potager, salle de médiation… il est question de partager aussi l’électroménager, l’outillage et pourquoi pas les compétences. Le mieux vivre passera aussi par le tissage de lien social entre les habitants, dans l’esprit des hameaux d’autrefois. Retrouver une mixité intergénérationnelle semble indispensable aux yeux du groupe, les anciens pouvant ainsi aider les plus jeunes, ou tout simplement veiller sur les extérieurs.

Lorsque Mariano m’expliquait tout cela, je ne pouvais m’empêcher de penser à l’Argentine où j’ai vécu 5 ans. Dans les petites villes, la vie des rues est très différente de chez nous car les habitants prolongent leurs maisons sur les trottoirs, avec des bancs et parfois même des tables. Les voisins se connaissent, partagent le maté, boisson qu’ils se passent à tour de rôle. La rue n’est pas systématiquement synonyme de danger. Les anciens, respectés et connus, surveillent ce qui s’y passe, dans le bon sens du terme… Mais revenons à nos moutons ! Les membres d’HAPACH souhaitent être ouverts à l’extérieur. Ils prévoient une grande salle qui pourra héberger les réunions du groupe, des conférences, des stages, mais qui pourra aussi accueillir des associations locales.

Authenticité, bienveillance et transition citoyenne

En ce qui concerne les relations du groupe, les Hapachs suivent les valeurs des Colibris mettant l’authenticité, la bienveillance et la transition citoyenne au cœur de leurs rencontres. Ils prennent les décisions par consentement, laissant la place pour que chacun se sente libre d’exprimer ses opinions, ses besoins, sans pour autant bloquer les rouages de l’avancement du projet. Ils utilisent des outils participatifs (comme le Jeu du Tao) avec un animateur à chaque séance garant du temps de parole, mais aussi la communication non violente. Pour la partie financière, ils ont souhaité que l’argent soit géré différemment des projets d’habitats conventionnels. Le budget global s’élève à environ 3 millions d’euros mais ils ont opté pour une coopérative d’habitants, avec des logements en jouissance et un amortissement sur une centaine d’années. Un très bon moyen pour effacer les différences sociales dans un modèle gagnant-gagnant !

 

S’ils sont 8 aujourd’hui, cet écolieu accueillera 15 foyers. Alors si l’envie vous prend d’embarquer avec HAPACH et de goûter cette expérience novatrice, n’hésitez pas à les contacter.

Julie Claverie

* Miyasaki Hayao, réalisateur de films

d’animation japonais

www.croixhaute.org

06 20 60 01 63

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